Tag Archives: exeggutor

Alola Form Exeggutor: Island Gigantism at its finest (Pokémon Sun and Moon)

I have a soft spot for Exeggutor. Despite being an unsettling freak of nature, Exeggutor in all its three-headed glory has managed to creep its way into my personal pantheon of favorite Pokémon. One of my first posts on The Biology of Pokémon focused specifically on Exeggutor, and surprisingly there is a lot to unpack just from a biological perspective. My analytical mind has always been perplexed by the anomalous existence of this strange creature. While others mocked and scoffed at its design, I always felt that there was more to the story of Exeggutor, that it wasn’t just another freak Pokémon, that there was a meaning to the madness.

Earlier this week, the Pokémon Company dropped a literally game changing trailer, revealing several new additions including new Pokémon, Z-moves, the apparent departure from the traditional 8-gym system, Totem Pokémon, and of course, Alola Forms.

And guess who was the first Pokémon to get an Alola Form.

Within minutes, the Internet was abuzz with memes mocking Exeggutor’s Alola Form. While I find a few of the memes worthy of a laugh, I can’t help but feel pity for my dear Exeggutor, finally having gotten its long overdue day in the sun, only to be mocked by a merciless fan base.

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But fear not Exeggutor, I will defend your honor.

For starters, Exeggutor having different forms depending on its environment is not a new concept. As early as Pokémon Crystal, the PokéDex mentions how Exeggutor will often grow many heads if it is living in a good environment.

  • Living in a good environment makes it grow lots of heads. A head that drops off becomes an Exeggcute.

The PokéDex entries from the Third Generation build on this, directly citing exposure to sunlight as conducive to head growth in Exeggutor.

  • Exeggutor originally came from the tropics. Its heads steadily grow larger from exposure to strong sunlight. It is said that when the heads fall off, they group together to form Exeggcute.
  • Originally from the tropics, Exeggutor’s heads grow larger from exposure to strong sunlight. It is said that when the heads fall, they group to form an Exeggcute.

The Alolan Islands provide the perfect environment for Exeggutor to thrive in, the tropical climate allows for year-round sunlight to fuel Exeggutor’s photosynthesis. Uninhibited by the winters that likely stunt its growth in more temperate regions, in the tropics of Alola, Exeggutor is able to achieve what the Alolan people refer to as its “true form”.

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In biology, there is a phenomenon called island gigantism, in which animals grow to larger lengths than their mainland counterparts once they are isolated on an island. This is often coupled with another island phenomenon called island dwarfism which is the exact opposite, the island animals become smaller than their mainland counterparts.

Island gigantism usually takes place in smaller animals, often herbivores. When a population of organisms colonize an island, the ecosystem is usually still developing and has many niches unfilled. Additionally, most of these new ecosystems lack the huge predators that many organisms faced on the mainland, as the physical distant and separation by water often make it difficult for such animals to colonize islands. Without the selective pressure of predators, in addition to a wealth of resources and abundance of ecological niches to be filled, many organisms will thrive in these environments and evolve larger bodies since they are no longer inhibited by the selective pressures of their former ecosystem.

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A great example of island gigantism is the Giant Tortoise, found in the Galapagos Islands. These massive creatures have no natural predators and can live upwards of one hundred years, with the longest recorded in captivity having lived to be 170 years old. They can weight up to 880 lbs. (400 kg to the rest of the world) and reach lengths of more than 6 ft. (1.87 m).  It is thought that they had evolved larger bodies in order to go longer periods without food and travel distances to obtain it.

Exeggutor is a classic case of island gigantism. Fewer predators reside on the Alola islands, and with an excess of sunlight, Exeggutor is free to push the limits of its evolution.

In fact, if you look at Alolan Exeggutor from an evolutionary perspective, its design starts to make more sense. Take, for example, its outrageously long neck. While at first it may seem out of place, if not, a major weakness, it also serves a very important purpose—photosynthesis. Exeggutor, being a plant, requires sunlight in order to complete the redox reactions that produce its food, glucose. With a longer neck, Exeggutor is able to reach above the treetops of the canopy and capture all the sunlight it needs. Additionally, Exeggutor has few, if any predators, while on these islands, so the selective pressures that would normally act against such a trait are not present, and thus, Exeggutor can evolve its neck to as far as its physical limitations allow it.

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Another interesting aspect of Alolan Exeggutor is its tail, which is said to contain a fourth head that independently controls the tail. This is important because its three main heads are too high to reach the lower sections of its bodies, so in battle, the tail head can defend its base when the top heads are unable to. Another perk of having a fourth head close to the ground is that it can also keep an eye out for potential dangers while the top half of Exeggutor is busy basking above the treetops.

As absurd as Exeggutor’s Alola Form may appear at first glance, it is perfectly evolved for the Alolan ecosystem and serves as yet another example of how well the Pokémon World can reflect our own at times. So the next time you see a derogatory comment or a meme mocking the Coconut Pokémon, remember how amazing this freak of nature truly is.

#ExeggutorLivesMatter

For more on Exeggutor, check out the original post, Exeggutor: A True Freak of Nature.

Exeggutor: A True Freak of Nature

The Pokémon World and our own world are similar in that the natural processes that govern life produce some strange creatures. Perhaps one of the most odd (and unsettling) is Exeggutor, the dual Grass Psychic-type that wanders around with its three grinning coconut heads resembling some unholy hybrid between a palm tree and several stoners. Yet our anthropomorphic palm tree friend is quite the interesting specimen when put under the lens of real-world biology.

 

A Free-Thinker of Many Heads

The most obvious abnormality of Exeggutor at first glance are its three heads, each with their own distinct and unsettling facial expression. According to the PokéDex entry in Pokémon Gold Version, “Its three heads think independently. However, they are friendly and never appear to squabble.”

This leads to quite the impressive nervous system, especially for a plant. But quips about plants not having any neurons aside, it is not unfounded in nature for animals to have multiple “brains” per say. For instance, octopi have nine brains, the main brain being located in its head with eight auxiliary brains in each of its eight tentacles. When an octopus desires to operate one of its arms, the main brain sends a single message to the nerves located in its arms, and then the arm “brain” proceeds to carry out the order all on its own. Even when severed, an octopus arm will still respond and react to stimuli the same way it would if it were attached to the complete organism and main brain1.

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Due to the complexity of their nervous systems, many people have a moral objection to the consumption of cephalopods.

 

However, unlike Exeggutor, the auxiliary brains of an octopus do not have their own consciousness. A severed octopi arm does not a new octopus make.

A particularly fascinating condition is that of polycephaly. A polycephalic organism is born with two or more heads, either as a supernumerary body part or as completely separate beings sharing a body, as the case is with Exeggutor. Usually the result of faulty twinning, polycephaly never results in more than three heads (tricephalic), with two being the norm (dicephalic). Unfortunately, in both humans and animals, dicephalic organisms rarely survive, as the two heads will often fight with each other for control over the body, often becoming disoriented, which makes for difficulty in fleeing predators. Polycephalic snakes have been known to even attack and consume their other head. Thankfully, Exeggutor appears to be a peaceful organism and its heads are very cooperative, as “they never appear to squabble”.

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Those that handler polycephalic organisms often report having to place a barrier between heads in order to prevent one from eating the other during a feeding.

As deleterious as this condition may be in our world, the trait seems to be of advantage in the Pokémon World. In the Crystal Version PokéDex, “Living in a good environment makes it grow lots of heads.” Apparently the selection pressures of the Exeggutor’s ecosystem make it so that having multiple heads is an advantage, running completely counter to our world which usually follows a general rule of the more appendages an organism has to manage the more energy required to maintain them all. In the game of evolution it’s all about the costs and rewards, having an extra head or two is just too taxing and hardly reaps any benefits.

While selection of polycephalic individuals may seem paradoxical at first, there is good reason for the Coconut Pokémon to expend energy growing its extra heads, and the answer lies with the endgame of survival, arguably the purpose of life – reproduction.

 

Dropping Heads: Clonal Fragmentation

Counter to what is portrayed in the videogames, Exeggutor does not need another Exeggutor (or any Pokémon of its egg group) to reproduce. In its natural environment, when not forcibly bred by overanxious trainers eager to create an IV master race, Exeggutor can reproduce asexually simply by parting with one of its heads.

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“If a head grows too big, it falls off and becomes an Exeggcute.” – Diamond/Pearl/Platinum PokeDex

More specifically, Exeggutor appears to reproduce through clonal fragmentation, a form of asexual reproduction most common in flatworms, sponges, annelids, sea stars, as well as mold, lichens, types of cyanobacteria, and many plants.

The process of fragmentation involves a piece of the organism splitting off to regenerate into a complete organism that is also able to reproduce. For example, tapeworms live in the digestive tracks of mammals, usually dogs and sometimes humans (either intentionally or, depending on the type of person, on purpose). As you can imagine finding a mate in the middle of a dog’s small intestine can prove troublesome, but all a tapeworm has to do is release an end segment of its own body down the track, and with some time Rover will have an infestation of new tapeworms, grown from the end bits of the original pioneer that first ventured into his bowels.

D. caninum ex dog.  Given by Peter Schantz

If you find one of these segments in your pet’s feces (or your own), seek medical attention.

As is common in binary fission, this often results in the regenerated fragment being genetically identical to that parent, making all Exeggutors clones of each other, the regenerated offspring of past Exeggutors whose heads grew too large to support. However, this process, as is the case with most forms of asexual reproduction, does have one major drawback, in that since all organisms are effectively clones of each other, there is no variation, and as any good biologist (or PokéBiologist) knows, genetic variation is the driving force of natural selection and therefore evolution. But this shouldn’t be a problem for Exeggutor, they seem to be plentiful enough, and pending an Exeggutor superbug, they will continue to endure for many generations to come.

Of course, there is the unique caveat that with Exeggutor, a single fallen head does not a new Exeggutor make, rather the individual Exeggcute have to swarm together, usually in groups of six in order to eventually “evolve” into an Exeggcute. Communicating telepathically, these eggs seem to form somewhat of a superorganism…but that is a topic for another day.

 

Cited Sources

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/09/0907_octoarm.html